Managing Withdrawal Symptoms in Seniors
Substance abuse and alcoholism can affect anyone, young and old. Unfortunately, these issues are commonly overlooked in the elderly population, despite higher health risks.
Detecting a substance abuse problem in older adults can be difficult in the presence of other medical conditions and generational gaps. The symptoms of dementia, diabetes, and depression can all mimic the signs of drug use or alcoholism, so it’s not always clear when to search for help.
Compounding with the issue of trying to isolate elderly drug abuse or alcoholism, many members of older generations disapprove of and shame those who may have an addiction. This can often discourage people from speaking up or reaching out for fear of ridicule.
Risk Factors of Elderly Substance Abuse
With growing older come distinct changes in an individual’s biomedical interaction with drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse is known to accelerate the normal physiological decline associated with old age. This can increase the risk of injury, illness, and socioeconomic status – things that are already issues for the elderly population.
Despite these difficulties, it’s absolutely vital to get help if you or an elderly loved one is suffering from addiction or alcoholism.
Depending on how long the addiction or abuse has persisted, you’ll need to treat the recovery process with care. Withdrawal symptoms can present immediate health risks as the body starts to readjust to its normal chemical balance.
Symptoms can occur as quickly as two hours after the last drink or within the next 12-24 hours after ceasing substance use including:
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Delirium tremens (DT)
More severe cases can cause life-threatening seizures, fever, intense confusion, hallucinations, and irregular heartbeats.
If you or a loved one experiences any of these symptoms go to the emergency room or call 911 immediately.
Even with mild symptoms, a doctor’s appointment should be scheduled in order to decide what the best form of treatment would be.
The Road to Recovery
Doctors will first take a complete medical history and ask about how much someone has been drinking or abusing a particular substance. They will want to know the quantity of the intake, and how much time has elapsed since the last instance of use. Patients must disclose as much information as possible in order to receive the proper treatment.
Next, a physical exam will identify any complicating medical conditions such as heart diseases, gastrointestinal bleeding, infections, liver diseases, or nervous system impairment and pancreatitis. A blood test may also be ordered to measure one’s complete blood count, electrolyte levels, and liver function.
For help and support, your doctor is likely to recommend outpatient rehabilitation for mild to moderately severe cases of elderly substance abuse. This type of treatment is most effective with a supportive network of friends and family. Outpatient rehabilitation is a safe choice and less expensive than inpatient detoxification in a hospital or other facility. The main difference is that each patient is responsible for attending their treatments and following through with recommendations on their own.
Severe cases may be better treated by inpatient rehabilitative treatments, especially if the patient does not have a reliable network of social support or a history of:
- Severe withdrawal symptoms
- Delirium tremens
- Previous detoxifications
- Specific medical or psychiatric illnesses
The main goals of rehabilitation centers are to reduce the immediate symptoms of withdrawal, prevent further complications, and initiate long-term therapies for recovery. Along with the services found through rehabilitation, patients may be prescribed certain medications to help manage the shakiness, anxiety, and confusion associated with withdrawal. These drugs include:
- Tegretol (recommended due to its low potential for abuse)
Withdrawal symptoms can be extremely unpleasant, and in some cases life-threatening. If you or an elderly loved one is suffering from substance abuse or alcoholism, don’t hesitate to seek help. Older adults run a much higher risk of serious health complications while abusing drugs or alcohol, so treat this issue very mindfully.